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Table 3 Within-group comparisons of participants’ disability scores, psychosocial outcomes across the 4-time points of the study

From: Graded activity with and without daily-monitored-walking in patients with type 2 diabetes with low back pain: secondary analysis of a randomized-clinical trial

Variable Groups Time frame W χ2 Pѱ
Week 0 Week 4 Week 8 Week 12    
Median (IQR) Median (IQR) Median (IQR) Median (IQR)    
LBP disability scores GAMWG 9.0 (3.5)a 7.0 (3.0)b 5.0 (3.0)c 4.0 (1.5)d 0.93 69.8 < 0.001*
GAG 9.5 (6.5)a 8.0 (5.3)b 7.0 (4.0)c 5.0(3.0)d 0.74 58.0 < 0.001*
Pain-self-efficacy GAMWG 38 (9.5)a 42 (6.0)b 44.0 (6.0)c 50 (8.0)d 0.90 67.6 < 0.001*
GAG 37.0 (6.5)a 38.0 (5.0)b 40.0 (8.5)c 45.0 (6.5)d 0.87 68.2 < 0.001*
Fear-avoidance beliefs GAMWG 38.0 (9.0)a 37.0 (9.5)b 27.0 (6.0)c 22.0 (6.0)d 0.96 72.0 < 0.001*
GAG 37.0 (11.5)a 37.0 (9.0)b 30.50 (4.8)c 24.0 (7.0)d 0.98 76.0 < 0.001*
Back-pain beliefs GAMWG 28.0 (7.5)a 30.0 (7.5)b 32.0 (2.5)c 35.0 (3.5)d 0.96 72.0 < 0.001*
GAG 28.5 (6.5)a 30.0 (6.3)b 30.5 (4.0)c 33.0 (4.0)d 0.93 72.3 < 0.001*
  1. IQR-Inter-quartile range; W-Effect size (Kendall’s W); *- Significance at α = 0.05; a b c d - post-hoc indicates that values with different superscript are significantly (p < 0.05) different; values with the same superscripts are not significantly (p > 0.05) different. Ѱ = Friedman’s ANOVA and Wilcoxon signed rank test post-hoc test was used for within-group comparison