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Table 2 Socio-demographic and baseline general characteristics of all participants by treatment group

From: Graded activity with and without daily-monitored-walking in patients with type 2 diabetes with low back pain: secondary analysis of a randomized-clinical trial

Variable GAMWGa
n (%)
GAGb
n (%)
Total (n = 51)
n (%)
Gender
 Male 8. (32%) 10 (38.5%) 18 (35.3%)
 Female 17. (68. %) 16 (61.5%) 33. (64.7%)
Marital Status
 Married 24. (96%) 25. (96.2%) 49 (96.1%)
 Widowed 1. (4.%) 1. (3.8%) 2 (3.9%)
Education
 Primary School 6 (24%) 0 (0%) 6 (11.8%)
 Secondary School 6 (24%) 6 (23.1%) 12 (23.5%)
 Polytechnic 2 (8%) 2 (7.7%) 4 (7.8%)
 University 11 (44%) 18 (69.2%) 29 (56.9%)
Occup. Status
 Unemployed 3 (12%) 4 (15.4%) 7 (13.7%)
 Employed 17 (68%) 18 (69.2%) 35 (68.6%)
 Retiree 5 (20%) 4 (15.4%) 9 (17.7%)
Variable GAMWGa
Mean ± SD
GAGb
Mean ± SD
t-value P-value
Age (years) 48.28 ± 9.41 48.27 ± 9.56 −0.00 0.99
BMI (Kg/m2) 26.48 ± 3.62 27.32 ± 2.22 1.00 0.31
HBA1c 6.33 ± 0.90 6.31 ± 0.87 0.10 0.92
Physical Activity (MetMin/day)c 1359.49 ± 635.0 1434.87 ± 1028.47 0.32 0.75
  Median (IQR) Median (IQR) U-value P-value
VAS scores (cm) 6.94 (0.15) 7.01 (0.20) 299.50 0.62
LBP disability Scores 9.0 (3.50) 9.50 (6.50) 308.00 0.75
Pain Self-Efficacy 38.0 (9.50) 37.0 (6.50) 315.00 0.85
Fear avoidance beliefs 38.0 (9.0) 37.0 (11.50) 311.50 0.80
  1. GAG-Graded activity group; GAMWG - Graded activity with daily –monitored-walking group; Occup. – Occupational; a - n = 25, b - n = 26; SD- Standard deviation; BMI-Body mass index; HBA1c- Glycated haemoglobin; VAS-Visual analogue scale; IQR-Inter-quartile range. c – Assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire