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Table 2 Distributions of area, topic, and type of study of retracted articles. aA retracted article could be categorised in more than one area

From: Retracted articles in rehabilitation: just the tip of the iceberg? A bibliometric analysis

Areaa N Topic N (%) Type of study N (%)
Musculoskeletal 143 Rehabilitation 55 (20%) Observational 91 (33%)
Neurology 69 Drugs 47 (17%) RCTs 65 (23%)
Sports/Physical activity 52 Surgery 36 (13%) Scoping review 27 (10%)
Orthopaedics 38 Physical Activity 36 (13%) Systematic review 18 (6%)
Gerontology 32 Diagnostic 18 (6%) Meta-analysis 15 (5%)
Cardiopulmunary 9 Epidemiology 17 (6%) Methodological 14 (5%)
Pediatrics 8 Complementary/alternative medicine 12 (4%) Letter/note 1 (0.5%)
Continence and Women’s health 3 Outcome measure 11 (4%) Protocols 1 (0.5%)
Oncology 3 Biomechanics 7 (3%) Others 48 (17%)
Ergonomics 2 Modalities 4 (1%)   
Occupational health 2 Others 37 (13%)   
Others 94     
Total 455 Total 280 (100%) Total 280 (100%)