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Table 1 Ten text examples of clinic websites presenting a theory of chiropractic vertebral subluxation

From: The “subluxation” issue: an analysis of chiropractic clinic websites

Text related to theory, law, or philosophy or vertebral subluxations
“Can Subluxations clear up by themselves? The chances of a subluxation healing itself is low because of the fast-paced lifestyle we life today. Dr. Battershill believes that once you have nerve interference created by a subluxation, that circuit breaker must be reset. This nerve interference affects the circuits of muscles, organs, glands, immune system and everything that is wired into that circuit, which is why it is so important to address subluxations as they come.” [17]
“A subluxation is the result of spinal bones with improper motion or position affecting nerve communications between your brain and your body. A subluxation is a stress response. Muscles go into spasm. Spinal bones lock up. And adjacent nerves are choked or chafed. This interferes with the control and regulation of your body. This garbles communications between the brain and parts of your body. Distorted nerve communications can be an underlying cause of many health problems beyond headaches and back pain. For example, interference with nerve impulses going to or from your stomach: stomach problems. Your nervous system controls every cell, tissue, organ and system of your body. These nerve impulses travel through your spine. So having a spine free of subluxations is essential for optimal health. Only a chiropractic examination can detect subluxations. And only chiropractic adjustments can reduce their effect on your nervous system, naturally.” [18] (an additional 33 URLs have similar if not identical text under a heading “subluxation”. In some cases the word “subluxation” in the text appears as “vertebral subluxation”, and in one it appears as “nerve interference” [19])
“When specifically treating the spine, chiropractors adjust vertebral subluxations. Which is a misalignment of one or more of the vertebrae in the spinal column, which causes alteration of nerve functions and interference to the transmission of mental impulses resulting in the lessening of the body’s innate ability to express its maximum health potential.” [20]
“If a subluxation is present in the spine, a joint ceases to move properly, nerves become irritated interfering with nerve messages being sent, leading to organ and tissue malfunction. Subluxations also lead to decreased stimulation of the brain.” [21]
“The nervous system controls and coordinates all functions of the human body. Subluxations/pinched nerves distort the nervous systems [sic] ability to control itself. That lack of proper function is what leads to disease. When you reduce/remove a subluxation you are allowing the body to physically function the way it was designed.” [22]
“A subluxation is an incomplete or partial dislocation of a joint or organ. A spinal subluxation can impinge on a spinal nerve root causing symptoms in the areas served by those roots as the nerve is affected, the tissue or organ which is controlled by that nerve can become dysfunctional. A subluxation or an incomplete dyslocation should be assessed and needs a chiropractor for treatment.” [23]
“I learned that a vertebral subluxation is a misalignment of any spinal vertebral segment and/or its articulation that causes interference of the nervous system which can over time negatively affected every cell, tissue, organ or organ system in the human body if not corrected.” [24]
“Every function of your body is controlled by your central nervous system, and this function can be disrupted by misalignments [sic] in your spine. These are called subluxations. A subluxation creates interference in the function of your spinal nerves, and this can result in impaired functioning of your organs and endocrine system.” [25]
“A vertebral subluxation alters blood chemistry via the hypothalamus. When a man or woman is subluxated, they have an increased release of stress hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine. These stress hormones, called catecholamines, release as a result of the “fight or flight” response. This response is a direct result of increased and sustained sympathetic nervous system tone. IT IS WELL KNOWN THAT INCREASED SYMPATHETIC TONE IS A MAJOR CAUSE OF CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS AND DISEASE!” [26]
“Chiropractic therapy is based on the hypothesis that reversible joint lesions of the spine produce far-ranging effects on the human body. Chiropractors rely on the spinal manipulation or (spinal adjustments) as their primary therapeutic tool of reversing the spinal dysfunctional units called the subluxation complex. Modern chiropractic does not claim to be a total therapy, but it does adhere to the idea that bio-mechanical dysfunction can have a profound effect not only on the musculoskeletal system but also other systems of the body.” [27]